Can you use this format as I did to give a good critique of the Article on attachment? As always use this as a sample and use your own words and in text citations as necessary. Use the bullet points below and a reference page. Public health significance Shelton et al. (2014) investigated the association between gestation pesticides exposure and neurodevelopmental disorders, namely autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental delays (DD). The prevalence of ASD has grown significantly in the past two decades. In 2012, one in 42 boys and one in 198 girls (1.46% of children) were diagnosed with ASD in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014). Worldwide, between one to two percent of children are diagnosed with ASD (CDC, 2014). In 2008, 13.7% of U.S. children were diagnosed with DD, a 17.1% increase compared to 1997 (Boyle, 2011). Although ASD and DD involve multiple etiologies, neurotoxic pesticides have been linked to these disorders. This study certainly holds national significance among agricultural communities and potentially global significance for farming communities worldwide. Scientific Gap Analysis Observations from animal studies and a recent surge in meta-analysis studies, as well as secondary data analyses, have linked pesticides exposure during pregnancy to ASD (Eskenazi et al., 2007; Roberts et al., 2007; Hicks, Doraiswamy, and Fry, 2016). This study joined an established linkage and validated the observation is applicable in California. It also attempted to explore the timing of gestational exposure. Rationale and Limitations on Methodology The researchers used the data from the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment) study. It is an ongoing, population-based case-control cohort since 2003. The recruitment protocol, verification of diagnosis, environmental risk factors, and participant characteristics are well documented (Hertz-Picciotto, Croen, Hansen, Jones, van de Water, and Pessah, 2006). Regarding pesticide quantification, the researchers employed the Pesticide Use Report (PUR) from a state mandated reporting database. Mapping and spatial model were developed for each of the four pesticides of interest. The final sample size was N=970. Without expert knowledge on the subject, the methodology appears thorough and appropriate. My only concern is that the PUR database is comprised of self-reporting pesticide use by growers, farm management companies, and does not include pesticides in non-agricultural use such as livestock. According to the California Department of Pesticide Use, 80-90% of pesticide use is reported (Wilhoit, 2013). Comparisons to pesticide sales data indicated reported application was lower than annual sales. Interpretation of results The researchers found that ASD and DD children were 60% and 150% more likely to have organophosphates applied near their homes during gestation, respectively, compared to TD children. Both of these associations reduced in effects as the distance from home increased, in which the researchers described as an exposure-response gradient. They also concluded that organophosphates exposure during second and third trimesters demonstrated a higher association with ASD while pyrethroids exposure could be more harmful during preconception and third trimester. They acknowledged this finding lacks precision, and it was essentially impossible to isolate individual pesticides at specific time points. Meanwhile, the sample size for DD children was inadequate for this examination. Finally, effects of exposure to multiple pesticides at the same time were no higher than single pesticide from the analysis model. Social Change Impact For the purpose of their study and the research questions, I agree with their conclusions. However, chemical compounds, including toxins, are well known to accumulate in body fat. The findings would be more meaningful going beyond three months preconception through pregnancy. The time frame may be extended to one or more years preconception and the first two years of childhood. If possible, maternal and child’s blood samples and infant meconium would be ideal to verify the exposure (Arbuckle, 2016). Other air pollutants, heavy metals, and particulate matter have also been shown as environmental risks (Lyall, 2014). Finally, I would like to see a summary chart regarding the maternal lifestyle survey since body fat, dietary choice, and family history of ASD/DD all contribute to the child’s risk. Additionally, general assessments of the ASD/DD severity (high-functioning verse low-functioning as well as sensory processing disorders, and other cognitive and behavioral characteristics) is also critical. The current findings are informative but unlikely to lead to either policy-level conversation or grassroots activism. I do not believe these families prefer or choose to live in proximity to these sites if they did not work in that community or had other choices based on the cost of living. Applying the Precautionary Principle The precautionary principle is challenging and limited in this case. Overall, one could advise women who plan to become pregnant to avoid living close to agricultural pesticide use. On the other hand, that is highly impractical as many pregnancies are unplanned and living away from these sites could mean higher cost of living or longer commute to employment. If the issue is addressed through the application of pesticides, such as requiring minimal amounted to be used, only used at night, or implement a no-spray policy in high wind weather condition, that could potentially be a temporary solution. Long term solution on a societal level would be to encourage sustainable organic farming to transition away from neurotoxic pesticides.